Britain gave Hong Kong back to China as a Special Administrative Region in 1997 after its 99-year lease on China ended. This lease started in 1898 when Britain negotiated a major land expansion of the Hong Kong colony.
In the Hall of the People in Beijing, British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and Chinese Premier Zhao Ziyang sign an agreement committing Britain to return Hong Kong to China in 1997 in return for terms guaranteeing a 50-year extension of its capitalist system.
Hong Kong is a special administrative region of China, with executive, legislative, and judicial powers devolved from the national government.
The People’s Republic of China
Hong Kong exists as a Special Administrative Region controlled by The People’s Republic of China and enjoys its own limited autonomy as defined by the Basic Law. The principle of “one country, two systems” allows for the coexistence of socialism and capitalism under “one country,” which is mainland China.
The Qing dynasty ceded Hong Kong to the British Empire in 1842 through the treaty of Nanjing, ending the First Opium War. Hong Kong then became a British crown colony. Britain also won the Second Opium War, forcing the Qing Empire to cede Kowloon in 1860, while leasing the New Territories for 99 years from 1898.
|Law of the People’s Republic of China on Safeguarding National Security in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region|
|Enacted by||Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress of the People’s Republic of China|
|Passed||30 June 2020|
|Signed||30 June 2020|
|Commenced||30 June 2020|
The treaty of Nanking in 1842 ceded Hong Kong to the British. Their big ships and military might meant China had little choice at the end of the first opium war. … It was this, the New Territories, that in 1898 the British pledged to give back in 1997. They didn’t think they would ever have to give it back.
Trading entrepot and shipping center: Hong Kong is the world’s eighth largest trading entity and is especially important as an entrepot for trade between China and the United States, Japan, Southeast Asia, and Taiwan. Re-exports, for example, account for more than 80% of the value of the territory’s total exports.
|Date||8–25 December 1941|
|Territorial changes||Japanese occupation of Hong Kong|
Hong Kong/Official languages
Cantonese remains dominant with 96% percent. As for Mandarin, 48% of Hong Kong’s population can speak it, compared to 46% of population that can speak English. Previously, English was the second most spoken language.
By this definition, anyone born in Hong Kong after it became a British colony in 1842 was a British subject. The Naturalisation of Aliens Act 1847 expanded what had been covered in the Naturalisation Act 1844, which applied only to people within the United Kingdom, to all its dominions and colonies.
Japan was not formally colonized by Western powers, but was a colonizer itself. It has, however, experienced formal semicolonial situations, and modern Japan was profoundly influenced by Western colonialism in wide-ranging ways.
The six colonies federated in 1901 and the Commonwealth of Australia was formed as a Dominion of the British Empire. … It fought with Britain and its allies again in World War II, protecting Britain’s Pacific colonies from Imperial Japan. Until 1949, Britain and Australia shared a common nationality code.
Legality: Article 1 of the Hong Kong Basic Law states that Hong Kong is an inalienable part of the People’s Republic of China. Any advocacy for Hong Kong separating from China has no legal basis. Same cultural origin and close connection: Hong Kong has been part of China for most of its history.
It rules that the U.S. would continue to treat Hong Kong apart from the People’s Republic of China even after the 1997 transfer of sovereignty marking the end of British rule. The United States maintains substantial economic and political interests in Hong Kong.
A majority of the population identified with ‘Chinese Folk Religions’ (49%). Of the remaining population, 21.3% of Hong Kong is Buddhist, 14.2% is Taoist, 11.8% is Christian and 3.7% identified with ‘Other’. Smaller numbers of the population are Hindu, Sikh and Jewish.
Hong Kong raises revenues from the sale and taxation of land and through attracting international businesses to provide capital for its public finance, due to its low tax policy.
From history, it can be known that China is a country which has been colonized by several nations such as Britain and Germany. Though there was a time with weakness and invasion of other countries, China recently became one of the countries that have the speediest development in the world.
The current chief executive is Carrie Lam, who was selected on 26 March 2017, appointed by the Central People’s Government with the State Council Decree signed by Premier Li Keqiang, on 11 April 2017 and took office on 1 July 2017. She is the first woman to serve as Chief Executive.
On 30 June 2020, China introduced the National Security Law (NSL) in Hong Kong in response to massive pro-democracy protests that had swept through the city the previous year. The controversial law reduces Hong Kong’s judicial autonomy and makes it easier to punish demonstrators and activists.
Hong Kong and Macau are both sovereign territories of the People’s Republic of China. However, due to the One Country, Two Systems policy, the two regions maintain a high degree of autonomy, hence they are considered not to be part of mainland China.
Due to the Naval Mutiny, Britain decided to leave India in a hurry because they were afraid that if the mutiny spread to the army and police, there would be large scale killing of Britishers all over India. Hence Britain decided to transfer power at the earliest.
In April 1987 Portugal and China reached an agreement to return Macau to Chinese rule in 1999, using the Hong Kong Joint Declaration between Britain and China as a model. They agreed to provisions under the Basic Law that would ensure the autonomy of Macau for 50 years after the start of Chinese rule.
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